One of the issues that scientists have discussed in recent years is whether there is a phenomenon in the form of a male brain and a female brain. There are different opinions if it is about this issue that people have been discussing for a long time, albeit figuratively. So do people have different brains?
The human brain still holds many mysteries. Although scientists are trying to unravel the human mind's secrets, some studies remain unanswered and cannot be quit. Although scientists think that the brain may be familiar to both women and men until the last few years, the "female brain" vs. the "male brain" debate has erupted in recent years. Moreover, the studies conducted reveal exciting results in this regard.
The debate between the female brain and the male brain is a topic that is discussed in everyday life, albeit metaphorically. However, it has just recently entered the list of scientists. Scientists continue to work to reveal this situation. The blessings of artificial intelligence are also used in recent studies. So, is there such a thing as a female brain and a male brain? Do we have a different brain structure with people of other genders?
Daphna Joel discussed the female brain and male brain discussions that could not be concluded in 2015. Joel conducted brain scans of more than 1,400 participants in his studies on the subject. Daphna Joel, who researched the regions with the most significant difference in size in the brains of men and women, concluded that the minds are generally not divided into males or females. According to Joel, the human brain is made up of "mosaics" of characteristics specific to male or female characteristics. Joel explained this situation as the "Mosaic Hypothesis."
Studies conducted in 2015 have been the subject of controversy since then. Some scientists firmly rejected the Mosaic Hypothesis. Scientists have even announced that algorithms can be used in this regard. According to experts, algorithms created with machine learning can determine the gender of a brain structure. So how does this algorithm work? What factors do these algorithms that scan the human brain care about in determining gender?
According to scientists who oppose the Mosaic Hypothesis, these algorithms can make accurate predictions between 80 and 90 percent. In other words, these algorithms detect human gender with great ease by scanning the brain. So if an algorithm can detect human gender in such a simple and highly accurate way, it must be able to identify some fundamental differences.
Daphna Joel criticizes scientists who oppose him on this issue. According to Joel, the algorithms do not provide a detailed explanation of how they detect gender. Scientists who support algorithms also confirm this situation. However, the important thing for them is not that this algorithm explains but that it correctly guesses gender. So how can an algorithm do this?
According to many scientists, algorithms that use machine learning to predict gender are literally like a black box. Because no one knows how these algorithms predict gender with brain scans, the algorithms can even focus on different points in the brain scan for gender prediction. A new study now reveals that these algorithms may benefit from head size.
A scientist named Carla Sanchis Segura and her team investigated a situation that has not been addressed to date. Segura and his team considered that these algorithms could predict gender based on head size. Studies have shown that such a situation could indeed exist. In other words, the algorithms in question were most likely based on head size.
According to Segura and her team, women have smaller bodies, heads, and brains than men. Here, the latest research has suggested that this reality can affect algorithms as well. They even developed a phenomenon that they call the "gold standard" to test this situation. This phenomenon brings together the brains of men and women, whose head and brain sizes are very close, thereby revealing how the algorithm would react.
The research team grouped the scans of human brains in three different ways. One of them involved the random classification of minds and the other to set it with high precision (the gold standard). The last grouping of scientists consisted of only raw data. Raw data and algorithms working in random classification gave the correct results. But precisely detailed scans were enough to confuse the algorithms.
When they tested all 12 algorithms used for estimation with the gold standard, they found that the success rate dropped significantly. The success rate of the algorithms had fallen to 10 percent in the last case. This study seems to take the discussion of male brain female brain terms a little further. Moreover, recent research seems to open up the reliability of algorithms to controversy.